Alvis/BAE CVR(T) – APC Variants

     Notes:  The FV-103 Spartan was not actually intended for use as an APC – instead, it was meant to form a base chassis for specialist vehicles such as engineer, ambulance, command, antitank, or SAM launchers.  The Spartan is a part of what is sometimes called the CVR(T) family (as they are all based on the Scorpion chassis) and as shares components with vehicles ranging from the base vehicle to the Scorpion light tank and Scimitar scout vehicle.  Even “plain vanilla” versions normally carry personnel such as combat engineers, MANPADS teams, or ATGM teams, instead of being used as simple APCs.  The “APC-type” versions are detailed below.  As are the rest of the CVR(T), the FV-103 and its variants are light, speedy vehicles with excellent mobility. In addition to Britain, CVR(T)-based vehicle are used by some 19 other countries, and the Spartan was evaluated (though not chosen) for use by the US Marines in the early 1980s (three sold for trials, which the Marines still have in storage).  (I have included those proposed US Marine variants below, just as a “what-if.”)  Other users include Malaysia and Indonesia. Originally the CVR(T) family was to have 12 members, but ultimately ten versions were built, plus some limited-edition specialized trials vehicles and prototypes. Further development of the Spartan led to the Stormer series. Since the British Army reorganization has given them a surplus of Spartans, they are now often employed as battlefield substitute rough-terrain “jeeps” and scout vehicles.  Production of the APC-type versions of the CVR(T) range is complete, and BAE (who bought out Alvis in 1980) no longer markets them, though British Army CVR(T)s are still being upgraded, and parts for them are still being manufactured, with larger components available on special order.

     The Spartan has an all-welded steel body and armor; in addition, most other internal metal components (including some of the power train components) are of aluminum and other light alloys.  The appearance of the Spartan is that of a “mini-APC.” The layout of the base vehicle is that of a basic boxy APC, with a sharply-sloped front end that included the driver’s position.  Behind him on the hull deck is the commander’s position, with a machinegun in a special mount that allows him to aim and fire the machinegun from under armor.  Beside the commander’s position, in the hull, is a swiveling seat for the squad leader; he has four vision blocks (to each side of his position) and his own overhead hatch.  At the rear are bench seats for passengers, and Alvis swears that they will fit up to eight troops. (A more normal fit is four troops and their specialist equipment.)  On the rear deck is a double hatch over the passenger compartment, and the rear of the vehicle has a ramp with a door in it. On the sides of the vehicle are large stowage boxes, as interior space is at a premium; these can be removed if the Spartan needs to be airlifted or airdropped. On either side of the hull front at the point where the glacis begins to slope, there are clusters of three smoke grenade launchers on either side of the front hull. Originally, the Spartan was propelled with a Perkins Jaguar gasoline engine developing 250 horsepower, but they were later re-engined with a 195-horsepower Cummins diesel. Still later versions were re-engined with 250-horsepower Perkins Phaser diesel engines under the CVR(T) LEP, which also upgraded part of the suspension, transmission, and much of the electrical system. Transmission is semiautomatic, or automatic under the CVR(T) LEP version. The Spartan is amphibious with 15 minutes of preparation, as a flotation screen must be erected around the hull.  Other upgrades include the 2001 addition of thermal imaging, and general upgrades to the electrical system, transmission, brakes, driver’s position, and roadwheels.

     The FV-104 Samaritan is an armored ambulance version of the Spartan.   Externally, the most visible differences are the roofline, which is raised 200mm, and the lack of any armament.  (The medics typically carry weapons, but the gun mount on the commander’s cupola is deleted.)  The vehicle crew consists of the driver, a medic, and the vehicle commander (who is also a medic, as is the driver).  The Samaritan has a heater and air conditioner (for casualty comfort, and small refrigerator and heater for rations, liquids, and perishable medical supplies, as well as a defibrillator and two oxygen sets for casualties.  Other than the crew, the Samaritan can carry four seated casualties or two stretcher cases, or two seated casualties and one stretcher case.   Because of the different shape of the hull, the driver can recline his seat to the rear; this can be done for comfort, but the reclined seat is also necessary if the Samaritan is buttoned up. Other than the aforementioned equipment, the Samaritan has the equivalent of two doctor’s medical bags and twenty personal medical kits, as well as an assortment of bandages, cravats, etc.

     The FV-105 Sultan uses the same body as the Samaritan, but is C3-type vehicle, for use in roles ranging from mortar and artillery FDCs to specialized communications vehicles to mid-level command post carriers (it’s most common role).  The exterior of the Sultan typically also has large stowage boxes on the sides, rear, and even the top of the vehicle, and the commander’s position is a simple rotating cupola with a pintle-mounted weapon.  The raised profile and increased interior space allows for a large map board and a small desk with storage drawers on right side of the passenger compartment, with a bench seat for three people facing that side.  The front of the right side is the radio operator’s; he typically monitors one short-range, two medium-range, and one long-range radio.  Specialist communications equipment may also be used if the Sultan is operating as an FDC or some other type of specialist communications or command role; the figures below reflect average equipment.  The commander’s seat can be moved completely down into the passenger compartment while he is participating in the command-type operations, or all the way up when he is functioning as the vehicle commander.  Most Sultans these days have a tactical laptop computer, and the cost below reflects that. The Sultan often also carries hand-held night vision devices, a laser rangefinder, and several sets of binoculars; the prices below reflect a hand-held image intensifier, a thermal imager, a laser rangefinder, and four pairs of binoculars. The driver has a seat like that of the Samaritan.  A specially-designed tent can be extended from the rear of the Sultan to provide a larger area for operations, and lights can be strung along the tent’s corners.  Many countries do not carry the tent, for tactical reasons (emergency moves are problematic; you either leave the tent behind, spend too much time packing it back up, or drag it behind you).

     An electronic warfare (EW) version of the Sultan requires a little more elaboration.  This version carries radio detectors and radar detectors, as well as jammers that can jam radios and radars in the frequencies that are most common on the modern battlefield.

     In the case of the Samaritan and Sultan, the flotation screen that is erected for amphibious movement is put up only around the sloping front of the vehicle, and takes only 10 minutes to deploy.  However, it was found that in practice, the screen did not work very well on those versions due to center-of-gravity issues, and in practice, it is rarely used or even carried.

     The Streaker has had an interesting history – it was ordered by the British Army, killed, ordered again, killed, ordered by other countries, and then finally accepted in small numbers by the British Army, both in its basic configuration and as the basis of some other specialist versions (which will not be discussed in this section).  Though it was put into production eventually, it was never produced in large numbers.  The Streaker is an armored logistics carrier – essentially, a tracked pickup truck, with an armored cab and an open load-carrying area with sides that have light armor, but are not very high.  The Streaker’s load area has a tailgate and droppable sides so outsized cargoes can be carried; the sides and tailgate can also be propped to stand straight out. At the rear of the cab is a small door for access to the load deck or for ventilation. The Streaker is not normally armed, though the commander’s cupola can be equipped with a pintle-mounted weapon, and I have included one in the figures below.  The bed has lockable roller, lock-down points, and tie-down points, and can accept most NATO-standard pallets and containers that will fit in the bed.  While the rear cargo area is open, the cab is fully enclosed and radiologically-shielded (though not NBC sealed). The driver’s position and commander’s position are in the same places, with the area behind of then sort-of lopped off.  The Streaker has a very high potential speed, hence the name; one internet account of a British Army soldier has the driver putting the vehicle through its paces at maximum speed, while the commander was behind him “getting thrown about and shitting.”

    The version that the US Marines were studying was to be a light scout vehicle; it was an FV-103 Stormer hull with a turret similar in appearance to that of the LAV-25, but lighter in weight and somewhat smaller in size.  These studies were conducted in the early 1980s. The Marines involved in the testing felt that it was an excellent vehicle and were especially impressed with its speed and cross-country mobility, as well as the compact size.  The test vehicles had turrets armed with M-242 25mm ChainGuns, coaxial machineguns, a full night vision suite for the gunner and commander with night vision for the driver, and a laser rangefinder and ballistic computer.  One of the test vehicles also had a laser designator mounted, and I have used this in the figures below.  Instead of the standard Spartan smoke grenade launchers, they had a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers on either side of the turret. Passenger space was greatly reduced, but included enough space for a small dismount team. They used the 195hp Cummins diesel engine. However, the vehicle was not considered to be enough of an asset to warrant large-scale procurement; a particular problem was that the turret made the vehicle top-heavy enough that fording was dangerous.  The USMC bought the three test vehicles outright, but retains them in storage; the stats below are therefore presented as a “what-if.”

 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

FV-103 (205hp Gas)

$29,740

G, AvG, A

600 kg

8.17 tons

2+8

5

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-103 (195hp Diesel)

$29,710

D, A

600 kg

8.17 tons

2+8

5

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-103 (250hp Diesel)

$109,915

D, A

600 kg

8.17 tons

2+8

6

Passive IR (D), Thermal Imaging

Shielded

FV-104 (205hp Gas)

$34,142

G, AvG, A

600 kg

8.66 tons

*

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-104 (195hp Diesel)

$34,082

D, A

600 kg

8.66 tons

*

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-104 (250hp Diesel)

$114,389

D, A

600 kg

8.66 tons

*

8

Passive IR (D), Thermal Imaging

Shielded

FV-105 (195hp Diesel)

$213,535

D, A

400 kg

8.66 tons

2+4

9

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-105 (250hp Diesel)

$293,740

D, A

400 kg

8.66 tons

2+4

10

Passive IR (D), Thermal Imaging

Shielded

FV-105 EW (195hp Diesel)

$440,185

D, A

300 kg

8.66 tons

2+2

12

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-105 EW (250hp Diesel)

$520,390

D, A

300 kg

8.66 tons

2+2

13

Passive IR (D), Thermal Imaging

Shielded

Streaker (205hp Gas)

$20,524

G, AvG, A

3.63 tons

5.45 tons

2+6

3

Passive IR (D)

Shielded (Cab Only)

Streaker (195hp Diesel)

$20,494

D, A

3.63 tons

5.45 tons

2+6

3

Passive IR (D)

Shielded (Cab Only)

Streaker (250hp Diesel)

$20,699

D, A

3.63 tons

5.45 tons

2+6

3

Passive IR (D)

Shielded (Cab Only)

FV-103 (USMC Version)

$235,410

D, A

500 kg

9.33 tons

3+3

9

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C), Thermal Imaging (G)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

FV-103 (205hp Gas)

182/127

44/27/4

386

151

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3

FV-103 (195hp Diesel)

174/122

42/26/4

386

107

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3

FV-103 (250 hp Diesel)

212/149

53/33/6

386

138

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3

FV-104 (205hp Gas)

171/119

41/25/4

386

160

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3

FV-104/105 (195hp Diesel)

164/115

40/24/4

386

113

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3

FV-104/105 (250 hp Diesel)

199/140

50/31/6

386

146

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3

Streaker (205hp Gas)

251/176

61/37/6

320

161

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3*

Streaker (195hp Diesel)

240/168

58/36/6

320

114

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3*

Streaker (250 hp Diesel)

297/208

73/46/8

320

146

Stnd

T2

HF8  HS3  HR3*

FV-103 (USMC Version)

144/100

35/22

386

128

Stnd

T2

TF5  TS4  TR3  HF8  HS3  HR3

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

FV-103/105/Streaker

None

None

L-7A2 (C)

3000x7.62mm

FV-103 (USMC Version)

+2

Good

M-242 25mm ChainGun, M-240D

400x25mm, 1030x7.62mm

*The AV of the load-carrying area is 2 on all sides except the front (which is the rear wall of the cab).

 

Alvis/BAE FV-432

     Notes:  In the early 1960s, production of a new range of British armored vehicles, the FV-430 series, began; first issue was in 1962.  The APC portion of the FV-430 series was the FV-432.  The FV-432 was at first to be called the Trojan; unfortunately, an automobile manufacturer had already registered the name “Trojan” internationally, and the original FV-432 was never given another name (though British troops sometimes referred to it as the “Sloppy Jalopy,” referring to it’s tendency to rust).  In form, the FV-432 is a “battle bus,” basically an armored box designed to get its troops to battle, but not designed to protect its troops in a full-on fight. The FV-432 is of similar concept to the US M-113, and is in fact a contemporary of the M-113; both entered service at about the same time, and both have had similar longevity in service.  For the most part, the FV-432 was used only by the British, but in the 1990s some surplus FV-432 Mk 1/1 and Mk 2s were sold to India, and the British keep some of them on NATO training bases in Canada. It is also a popular vehicle with civilian collectors. Like the Spartan above, the FV-432 was to have been long replaced by the Warrior and specialized versions of the Warrior, but even now in 2017, it still soldiers on in updated versions; the current end of service date is still unspecified, but projected to be well into the 2020s.

 

The FV-432 Mk 1 & Mk 2

     The basic has a driver’s compartment on the front left deck; behind him and slightly to the right is the commander’s cupola.  Depending on the variant, the cupola may or may not have a pintle mount for a light or medium weapon; most of the time this is an L-7A2 GPMG, but in the past in second-line or rear-area service (including the Twilight 2000 timeline), a Bren L-4 was mounted.  Some units adopted the practice of US units in Vietnam – surrounding the commander’s cupola with large gun shields. The rear passenger area has a large overhead opening closed by a two-part circular hatch (opening right and left); the passenger area is rather roomy inside compared to the Warrior, Spartan, or other countries’ APCs and IFVs, leading some troops to call it “the Hilton.”  The sides of the passenger compartment have five folding seats.  A cluster of three smoke grenade launchers are found on each side of the vehicle at the top of the glacis.

     The engine of the original version of the FV-432, the Mk 1, was a Rolls-Royce B-Series 240-horsepower gasoline engine, coupled to a GM TX-200 4A semiautomatic transmission.  Though this is not a fully-integrated powerpack, the engine and transmission are mounted on a common sub-frame and can be removed in one piece. The engine of the FV-432 has always been a sore point; due to the FV-432’s weight, an engine with decent horsepower still gives the FV-432 only average power.  The engine and crew compartments each have their own automatic fire detection and suppression systems (known as Firewire). Construction is largely of steel; this leads to a vehicle that is rather heavy for its design but the armor is stronger than vehicles made from the aluminum alloy that was available at the time.  The tracks are also steel, but with rubber track pads. The FV-432 Mk 1 was designed with amphibious capability, but this requires that a large flotation screen be erected, a trim vane extended, and a bilge pump turned on – an operation that could take up to a half an hour with inexperienced troops.  This meant that for the most part, the idea of swimming an FV-432 was discarded, the floatation screen no longer carried, and the bilge pump disabled.  Passengers may enter and leave the FV-432 via a large rear door (almost as large as the rear face itself) which has a vision block in it, or a large double hatch in the rear deck. The FV-432 deliberately has no firing ports – it has long been British Army doctrine that troops dismount to fight, and that firing ports are unnecessary. The FV-432 has a collective NBC system, with all crew and passengers able to hook into a central NBC filtration system.  This leads to one of the most distinctive features of the FV-432 – the large external NBC filtration pack near the center of the right side under an armored cover.

     Though troops have had a number of complaints about the FV-432 and FV-430 series over the years, it has proven to be a rugged and very adaptable vehicle that can fill a variety of roles (underpowered engine notwithstanding) and easy to maintain.  (You bring up any subject, and some soldiers will complain about it, anyway…)

     A minor variant, the Mk 1/1, primarily dealt with small automotive and electrical problems.  The Mk 2 version had a new Rolls-Royce K60 multifuel engine, and a few other mechanical and electrical improvements.  Some Mk2s had the commander’s station supplemented with a Peak Engineering lightweight turret armed with a single GPMG, giving the position a bit more protection; is such cases the commander’s armament was usually removed and the turret controlled by the commander or the infantry squad’s leader. (It does not replace the commander’s station – it is mounted just ahead of the troop hatches, roughly in the center of the hull deck.) A short-lived version, the Mk 2/1, moved the NBC pack inside of the walls of the vehicle – something that made maintenance more difficult and that the crews objected to.

     In Desert Shield, a quick-and-dirty air conditioning system was devised for the FV-432 Mk 1.  Before they could be installed, the ground phase of Desert Storm started, and the rapid end of that conflict meant that they were never installed.  Air conditioners did not become a part of the FV-432 until Op Telic.

 

The FV-432 Mk 3 Bulldog

     The British Army decided to deploy the FV-432 Iraq as a part of Operation Telic (the British name for Operation Iraqi Freedom).  However, it was quickly discovered that the FV-432 needed several updates, particularly in the area of armor protection, and a new engine to tote around the additional armor. Some 124 FV-432 APC versions were so updated to the Mk 3 configuration under the Force Protection Initiative, and the resulting vehicles christened “Bulldog.”  Initially, only FV-432s and FV-434s were updated, though other FV-430 versions may be added in the future; eventually, somewhere between 500 and 1000 FV-430-series vehicles will be so upgraded, to varying degrees.

     The Bulldog is a rather dramatic upgrade from the base FV-432 configuration, and even from the Mk 2.  Externally, the upgrade is rather stunning, with appliqué aluminum armor applied to basically every surface of the FV-432, especially the hull floor; on the glacis and hull sides, this appliqué is armor spaced by stand-off bars.  The FV-432 upgrade also includes lugs for ERA on the glacis and hull sides. Ahead of the driver and commander’s station is a short, wire-cutting mast to keep low-hanging wires from taking the driver’s and/or commander’s heads off.  Alternatively, a conventional GPMG pintle may be mounted, probably surrounded with gun shields.  Other improvements include a beefed-up suspension for the crew and troops seats.  An increasing number of Bulldogs are equipped with GPS systems as well as extra radio.

     The commander’s position is sometimes unarmed; this is because the FV-432 Mk 3 may be equipped with a CROWS-type station called the RCWS-30 armed with a light autocannon, a coaxial machinegun, and a pair of ATGM. (This station is designed by Rafael of Israel.)  This station is operated by a dedicated gunner, but may also be operated by the squad leader of the infantry squad in the vehicle; the sensors of the station include a telescopic sight, a thermal imager, and an image intensifier.  The gunner’s station itself in inside the body of the vehicle, connected to the RCWS-30 turret by an LCD panel downlink.  A RCWS-30-equipped FV-432 Mk 3 typically has its smoke grenade clusters increased to four each. The Bulldog, when equipped with ERA and the RCWS-30 station, presents an appearance almost unrecognizable as an FV-432.

      The engine used in the upgrade is a 260-horsepower diesel engine (though initially the Bulldog retained its 240-horsepower multifuel engine), along with a fully automatic transmission. The former driver’s laterals for control of the FV-432 are gone, replaced by a steering yoke and a standard gas pedal and brake pedal. The Bulldog has an air conditioning unit, though it is modular and may be removed if it is deemed unnecessary, such as if a war occurs in cold climates.  In the lower hull, the British have taken a page out of the Russian T-90s tech manual and installed a mine/IED electrical jammer; when the jammer encounters a magnetic mine or one with an electrical fuze within 10 meters, the jammer will disable the fuze from operating on a roll 14 or better on a d20.  Note that the mine must be in a 20-degree radius of the front of the Bulldog.  The jammer device is also not a mine detector – if the device does not detonate the mine and the mine does not actually go off, the Bulldog’s crew will not know that the mine is there.

 

An Unusual Variant: The FV-432/30

     The FV-432/30 was originally designed as a vehicle to beef up the fighting power of British troops manning the Berlin Brigade during the Cold War.  The FV-432/30 was an FV-432 Mk 2 that was modified by mounting the turret of the Fox armored car, a vehicle that at the time was slowly being withdrawn from service.  Inside the Fox turret, a laser rangefinder was added. The Fox turret essentially replaces the passenger compartment overhead hatch, and the normal commander’s position is deleted. As stated, the FV-432/30 was originally used only by the British component of the Berlin Brigade, but was later used by other components of the BAOR.  In the late 1980s, the FV-432/30 was retired from active service; they then became surrogate BMP-2s, complete with faux ATGM launchers on the turret, with some based in NATO training bases in Canada and some retained in Britain as OPFOR vehicles.  They are maintained, however, as fully functioning vehicles, though there are no plans to put them back into service. Only 13 of these conversions were done.

 

Other APC Variants

     Several APC-type variants of the FV-432 were built; most of these are simply carriers for heavy weapons, but there are also armored ambulance and command post-type versions, as well as a sort of “armored truck” logistics carrier and a communications vehicle.  Most of these are now out of service, especially the weapons carriers, as the weapons they carried have been supplanted by more modern weapons.  The FV-432 has proven to be quite adaptable, and many of the weapon carrier variants can be converted to one another or back to the APC configuration by the use of simple installation kits.

     One of the first of these weapons carriers was equipped with a 120mm Wombat recoilless rifle.  In this role, the passenger compartment overhead hatch could not be closed without removal of the Wombat from its mount.  In the passenger compartment, bins for ammunition were installed, and the vehicle carried only a gun crew and the vehicle driver and commander.  Tools and maintenance equipment for the Wombat were also carried, and racks for the gun crew’s personal weapons were also provided.  This weapons carrier was later replaced by the Milan carrier detailed in a paragraph below.

     Another recoilless rifle carrier used the M-2 Carl Gustav 84mm recoilless rifle.  It was essentially the same as the Wombat carrier above, except for the armament and the ammunition storage.  It too was replaced by the Milan team carrier.

     That Milan team carrier is designed to carry a pair of Milan ATGM teams, their ground mount equipment, maintenance and testing equipment, and as many missiles as possible.  It’s actually rather cramped inside the passenger compartment due to the amount of missiles it carries.  Though one could set up a Milan ground mount atop the FV-432, it would be a slippery mount, as there are no actual external mounts for the Milan launcher; the teams are meant to leave the FV-432 to deploy their missiles, and the FV-432 is basically a truck to carry around reloads.  The commander’s position is retained, and the interior is modified to carry the missile racks, but it’s otherwise an FV-432.

     The FV-432 was also used as a logistics carrier – an armored truck.  This version is simply a standard FV-432 Mk 1 or Mk 2 (I haven’t been able to determine whether Mk 3s are being used this way), but the seats are folded up and secured, and some tie-downs and locking points installed for boxes, containers, pallets, etc.  These are identical to standard Mk 1s and Mk 2s for game purposes, except that they generally carry supplies instead of troops.  In fact, such an FV-432 may simply be a standard FV-432 APC that the logistics personnel packed a bunch of supplies into for transport to more forward areas.

     The FV-432 ambulance (Mk 1, Mk 2, and Mk 3 versions were made) is a standard FV-432 APC, but modified to carry medical supplies, personnel, and casualties.  The FV-432 ambulance may carry up to four stretcher-borne patients, two stretcher-borne patients and five seated patients, or one stretcher-borne patient, five seated patients, and boxes or lockers with extra medical supplies.  Normally, the driver and commander are also the medics, but sometimes a third medic is carried, and the figures below reflect that. The vehicle has heating (and later air conditioning) for casualty comfort, a small refrigerator for perishable medical supplies, a small heater for blankets to treat hypothermic patients or to heat medical supplies (some sources on the Web also say it makes a decent bread toaster), and two sets of oxygen treatment units.  Later, defibrillator units were added. These vehicles are normally unarmed except for the crew’s personal weapons.

     A command version of the FV-432 was developed.  The basic form of the FV-432 was not modified for this role, but a superstructure a little over a meter tall was attached to the top of vehicle around the area of the large overhead hatch (though the superstructure is square and somewhat larger than the hatch).  Lockdown points inside the superstructure were provided to allow the overhead hatches to be locked open.  This superstructure, commonly called a “penthouse” by British troops, allowed passengers to stand upright in the hatch and still be protected, and also to stop light leaks but still be able to keep the interior lights on.  It also provided a small amount of extra storage space around the edges of the superstructure interior.  The command post variant was also used (in a different interior configuration) as an FDC.  Like most such vehicles, it has a map board and various supplies for making notations, writing messages, and plotting battlefield locations; the price below also includes a hand-held image intensifier, thermal imager, and four sets of binoculars.  A hand-held laser rangefinder is also included in the price, as is a rugged laptop computer and one short-range, two medium-range, and two long-range radios with data receipt/transmission capability for one of the medium-range radios. (The computer and data radio are not included with the Mk 1 version, nor is a thermal imager; the Mk 1 version includes two image intensifiers.)

 

     Some interesting notes include that an FV-432, modified to look like a Sturmgeschutz III, was used in the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers. In Game Workshop’s game Warhammer 40,000, a model of an FV-432 was modified into the model of the Rhino Tank. In the last scenes of V for Vendetta, FV-432s appear amongst the security vehicles defending Parliament.

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: In the Twilight 2000 timeline, the Mk 3 does not exist (in any form).  The FV-432/30 was modified in larger numbers; some of them had new-built turrets, and a total of 38 were so modified for use in Europe, with another 22 used in the Persian Gulf.  FV-432s that were formerly used for training purposes in Canada were “impounded” for use by the Canadians.  The Indians never received any FV-432s in the Twilight 2000 timeline.

 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

FV-432 Mk 1

$48,925

G, A

1.54 tons

15.3 tons

2+10

8

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

FV-432 Mk 2

$50,925

D, G, A

1.54 tons

15.3 tons

2+10

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 2 (Turreted)

$51,435

D, G, A

1.34 tons

15.5 tons

3+10

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 3

$43,633

D, A

1.2 tons

16.8 tons

2+10

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 3 w/RCWS-30

$159,135

D, A

1.1 tons

17.2 tons

3+8

10

Passive IR (D, G), Thermal Imaging (G), Image Intensification (G)

Shielded

FV-432/30

$179,532

D, G, A

1 ton

18 tons

3+6

11

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 2 Wombat Carrier

$66,625

D, G, A

400 kg

15.2 tons

5

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 2 M-2 Carrier

$63,713

D, G, A

400 kg

15.2 tons

5

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Milan Carrier

$183,640

D, G, A

400 kg

15.5 tons

2+4

8

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 1 Ambulance

$56,264

G, A

1.54 tons

15.3 tons

***

9

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 2 Ambulance

$58,264

D, G, A

1.54 tons

15.3 tons

***

9

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 3 Ambulance

$50,178

D, A

1.2 tons

16.8 tons

***

9

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 1 CPV

$146,755

G, A

1 ton

16.2 tons

2+5

10

Passive IR (D)

Enclosed

FV-432 Mk 2 CPV

$267,800

D, G, A

1 ton

16.2 tons

2+5

10

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

FV-432 Mk 3 CPV

$289,013

D, A

1 ton

17.8 tons

2+5

9

Passive IR (D)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

FV-432 Mk 1/Ambulance

113/79

28/17/2

454

134

Stnd

T2

HF6  HS4  HR3

FV-432 Mk 2/Wombat Carrier/M-2 Carrier/Ambulance

113/79

28/17/2

454

100

Stnd

T2

HF6  HS4  HR3

FV-432 (Turreted)/Milan Carrier

113/79

28/17/2

454

100

Stnd

T2

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF6  HS4  HR3

FV-432 Mk 3/Ambulance

107/75

26/16

454

128

Stnd

T3

HF8Sp  HS6Sp  HR4*

FV-432 Mk 3 w/RCWS-30

105/74

25/16

454

131

Stnd

T3

TF2  TS2  TR2  HF8Sp  HS6Sp  HR4*

FV-432 Mk 2/30

97/68

24/14

454

118

Stnd

T2

TF5  TS3  TR2  HF6  HS4  HR3

FV-432 Mk 1 CPV

106/74

26/16/2

454

142

Stnd

T2

HF6  HS4  HR3

FV-432 Mk 2 CPV

106/74

26/16/2

454

106

Stnd

T2

HF6  HS4  HR3

FV-432 Mk 3 CPV

101/71

24/15

454

136

Stnd

T3

HF8Sp  HS6Sp  HR4*

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

FV-432/CPV

None

None

L-7A2 (C) or Bren L-4**

1600x7.62mm (belted) or 1500x7.62mm (in 50x30-round Bren magazines)

FV-432 (Turreted)

+1

None

L-37A1

1600x7.62mm

FV-432 Mk 3 w/RCWS-30

+3

Fair

30mm ATK Mk 44, L-7A2, 2xJavelin ATGM Launchers

300x30mm, 1000x7.62mm, 2xJavelin ATGM

FV-432/30

+3

Basic

30mm Rarden, EX-34

200x30mm, 3000x7.62mm

FV-432 Mk 2 Wombat Carrier

None

None

120mm Wombat Recoilless Rifle, L-7A2 (C)

20x120mm, 100x.50 Spotting Rounds, 1600x7.62mm

FV-432 Mk 2 M-2 Carrier

None

None

84mm M-2 Recoilless Rifle, L-7A2 (C)

32x84mm, 1600x7.62mm

FV-432 Milan Carrier

None

None

2xMilan ATGMs, L-7A2 (C)

24xMilan ATGM, 1600x7.62mm

*Hull floor AV is 4.

**Brens are not found on FV-432s after 2000.

***See notes in description.

 

Alvis/BAE FV-510 Warrior

     Notes:  The Warrior ICV was the result of General Staff Requirement 3533, which called for the general modernization of British Army vehicles, and as much consolidation of designs as possible.  The initial contract for the MCV-80, which later became the FV-510 Warrior, was awarded to GKN Sankey in the early 1970s (Sankey was soon thereafter bought out by Alvis, which was later bought by BAE).  Primarily to a tight budget, development was slow; the final contract and flow of money did not start until 1980s, and first deliveries of the Warrior did not begin until 1986.  Another reason for the lengthy development was the British Army itself, who seemed not be able to decide what it wanted from the MCV-80 project – originally, the MCV-80 was to be much heavier and equipped with Chobham armor on its glacis, then they wanted an ATGM launcher to be added, some wanted light SAM launchers as well, then decided that all that would be too expensive and heavy.  The British Army then did a 180-degree turn and wanted something light in weight and armament (and cost), then finally settled on a compromise of sorts.  The Warrior was exclusively a British-used vehicle until after Desert Storm; Kuwait bought 254 of the version known as the Desert Warrior (see below). The Warrior was planned from the start as a family of vehicles, though not all of the potential variants have been manufactured or gotten off the drawing board.

 

The FV-510 Warrior – The Original Version

     In most ways, the Warrior is a standard sort of ICV (strictly speaking, the Warrior is not an IFV, as it lacks ATGMs or other means to engage heavy armor or strongpoints).  The driver is on the left side of the vehicle, with the engine to his right.  The turret has hatches for the commander and gunner, with the commander to the left.  Fuel tanks are found in the walls of the passenger compartment, with stowage boxes in the rear and a large bustle rack in the rear of the turret.  The passenger compartment is in the rear, and is rather cramped.

     Power for the Warrior is provided by Perkins/Rolls-Royce Condor CV8 TCA diesel engine developing 550 horsepower; this is coupled to an Allison X300-4B automatic transmission.  (This engine is essentially a smaller version of those used on the Challenger 1 and 2; some parts are actually interchangeable between the Warrior and Challenger engines.) This gives the Warrior the necessary speed to keep up with the Challenger 1 and 2 tanks, a requirement of the original specifications.  The suspension can give a bit of a rough ride, but is quite capable over rough terrain.  The ride of the Warrior can be a muddy, dusty, dirty one; the design of the suspension unfortunately throws up lots of terrain; and these days most Warriors have extra rubber skirts attached to the fenders, side skirts, and the lower front hull. The powerpack, suspension, electrical system, and armament systems are regarded as very reliable (and not just by the British Army.  The fuel tank is made of translucent polyethylene, located in the turret floor, and visible to the turret crew and some of the passengers. It was discovered during Desert Storm that seeing the sloshing of the fuel in the tank actually contributed to motion sickness and most of them have been painted.

     The driver is on the left side of the front hull, with a overhead hatch that can be locked open enough for him to see out almost 270 degrees around, but not block the traverse of the turret; it can also be opened straight up to allow the driver to enter and exit through the hatch (but it will block the traverse of the turret.  The driver uses a steering yoke and a conventional brake and gas pedal. A little-used design feature is a windshield that can be fitted to the hatch opening when the hatch is open for driving; this seals the hatchway opening but still allows the driver to see out through the partially-opened hatch, and even includes a windshield wiper! Originally, the driver had one wide angle vision block which could be replaced with a night vision block; later, another vision block was added on either side of the front vision block to give the driver a better view when buttoned up.  The driver has a seat adjustable for height as well as being able to recline almost totally; though the driver’s compartment is cramped, it is conceivable that one could sleep in there.

     The passenger compartment had troop seats along the walls of the vehicle.  There are no firing ports, keeping with the British doctrine that troops leave the vehicle to fight with the ICV providing fire support.  The lack of firing ports also allows for appliqué armor to be readily fitted without worrying about blocking any firing ports or vision blocks, and allows the sides of the passenger compartment to be slightly sloped to increase armor protection.  The commander and gunner have a decent view around the vehicle through vision ports.  On the rear deck is a large double hatch; the passengers enter and exit through a large power-assisted door on the rear face. The troops in the passenger compartment have use of a pair of rotating periscopes with a magnification of x8.   A nice-to-have extra feature in the passenger compartment are a pair of hot plates/water boilers for crew rations and beverages.

     Hull armor is of all-welded aluminum, often with appliqué armor plates on the sides and sometimes on the glacis (especially during and after Desert Storm, during deployments to the former Yugoslavia, and during the recent fighting in Iraq).  Floor armor is notoriously thin, something that is being addressed by current upgrades.  The turret, on the other hand, is armored in welded steel, and compared to most vehicles of its class, is relatively well armored.  (Even compared to the Warrior’s hull, the turret is well-armored.) On the other hand, it does make the vehicle heavier than it might have been if an aluminum armor turret had been used.

     The main armament of the Warrior is the tried-and-true L-21 Rarden autocannon, with a coaxial L-94A1 (the US EX-34, built by Boeing) machinegun.  (Something that seems to have been overlooked is stabilization for the Rarden.) The turret is in the center of the vehicle, somewhat offset to the left to accommodate some equipment stowage (especially a bin for seven LAW-80 rockets and small arms ammunition for the passengers).  The commander and gunner have night vision equipment, as well as magnified scopes with magnification channels of x2 and x6.  On each side of the turret are a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers.  The vehicle has a collective NBC system for the crew and passengers, and this system also shields the airflow to the radios and some other electronic equipment.  The Warrior has automatic fire detection and suppression systems, with separate systems for the turret and passenger compartments, the driver’s compartment, the engine compartment, and the fuel tanks.  In addition, there are a pair of manual handles to actuate the fire extinguishing system. The ammunition is protected by armored bins.  On each side of the turret is a cluster of four smoke grenade launchers, normally loaded with visual and IR screening smoke grenades.

 

Warrior Upgrades

     Though the design of the Warrior remained relatively static for a long time, Operations Telic and Herrick (the British parts of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan) as well as earlier operations as part of IFOR and KFOR in the Former Yugoslavia showed a need for upgrades, and several were proposed, from the incremental to the radical. Upgrades already fitted to the Warrior include the improved Bowman communications system and a Thales thermal imaging system for the gunner. GPS with an inertial navigation backup has also been fitted, along with a laser rangefinder for the armament; these upgrades were a part of the BGTI upgrade program.

     Until all of the Warriors had been retrofitted with applique armor, many Warriors were equipped with bar/slat-type armor in the interim.  The cage covered the front, sides, and the rear of the vehicle, with the cage covering the door opening with the door.  The turret sides and rear were also covered, though the cage for the hull and turret did not rise above the vehicle.  The design of the cage did not allow for it’s use as an equipment-carrying option.  The cage was eventually totally replaced by applique, called “Wrap Two.”

     The current upgrades that have been applied to the have started with the Warrior Capability Sustainment Program (WSCP).  Some 643 Warriors are projected to be upgraded by WSCP; 194 will receive additional protection (the Warrior Modular Protection System, or WMPS) and the Warrior Enhanced Electronic Architecture (WEEA).  449 others will also be fitted with a new turret under the Warrior Fightability Lethality Improvement Program (WFLIP).  The remainder of the Warrior fleet will receive more incremental improvements such as enhanced communications, improved suspensions, and better electrical systems and night vision equipment.

     The basic WCSP upgrades include a modular armor protection system (the WMPS), similar in concept to the different levels of armor protection devised for vehicles such as the now-defunct M-8 Buford Airborne Combat Vehicle and the Stingray 2 light tank. At the lowest levels, the additional protection includes add-on appliqué armor similar to that already used by the Warrior, but with superior protection, and also protection for the turret; an additional layer of titanium plate can be added to the turret roof and hull floor.  Lugs for ERA can be attached to the hull sides, glacis, and turret sides for additional protection.  At the maximum level of protection, a layer of ceramic composite armor (not as good as Chobham, but better than simple spaced armor) can be added to the hull sides and glacis, and the lugs for ERA moved to the outside of this additional protection layer.

     The WEAA adds the absent stabilization to the Rarden autocannon, in both planes of movement.  The standard Rarden autocannon is fed by 3-round clips (feasible, as the Rarden’s ROF is a very low 90 rpm); this discourages wasteful ammunition use, but is not ideal when volume of fire is necessary.  The WEAA converts the Rarden to dual belt feed.  The WEAA also adds an up-to-date ballistic computer and an upgraded day/night vision system that gives the Warrior a true hunter/killer capability.  Electronic IFF and IR suppression for the engine and exhaust are also added.  The WEAA also gives the Warrior a capability that more and more modern combat vehicles have – a battlefield management system that allows the crew to receives digital updates, plot enemy and friendly positions, transmit collected data to higher and lower-echelon units, and monitor the total condition of the vehicle.

     The WFLIP will replace the standard Warrior turret with one that, while based on the standard turret to reduce costs and simplify upgrade difficulties, will bring heavier firepower to the Warrior.  The increase in firepower is based around the CT-40 CTWS (Case-Telescoped Weapon System).  This is a 40mm autocannon developed as a joint venture between France and Britain to equip their next generation of IFVs and reconnaissance vehicles, and is ideal for the WFLIP system as the case-telescoped ammunition takes up less space than the L-21A1’s ammunition.  A single Milan ATGM launcher will also probably be mounted, fired by the commander; it is becoming increasingly possible that the new turret will also give the commander a machinegun on a pintle mount.

     As the new armor levels increase the Warrior’s weight, the brakes have had to be improved, as has the transmission.  A 750-horsepower engine is being considered, but is still just a thought to the British Army; extensive tests have been done, however, so I have included it below.

     Nexter has been testing a new BAE/Nexter turret, with twin Javelin launchers.  This may eventually filter back to the Warrior, but who knows…

     These upgrades were originally to have all been done on all ICV-type Warriors.  Later, the MoD decided to go the piecemeal route, to the outrage of the Army and many soldiers.

 

The Desert Warrior

     Desert Warrior, or Fahris as it is called in the Kuwaiti Army, is a special version of the FV-510 Warrior, designed for Kuwait.  The Desert Warrior is a highly-modified Warrior, with a hull that includes seven firing ports (three on each side, and one in the rear door). Sand shields have been amply provided to keep down the dust signature of the Desert Warrior, and the Desert Warrior has a high-performance air conditioning system.  Appliqué armor has been added to the hull sides and glacis, and the hull floor is also more heavily armored.  Other refinements include a ration cooker, a small APU (0.07 kw), and personal cleanup supplies.  A GPS and mapping system is also provided.

     However, the most noticeable difference in the Desert Warrior is the turret – it has been replaced with one based on the LAV-25, but more heavily armored.  The primary armament is an M-242 25mm ChainGun, along with a MAG as a coaxial machinegun; the armament has a laser rangefinder and ballistic computer.  The commander also has a pintle-mounted weapon.  On each side of the turret is a launcher for a TOW II missile, with reloads being carried in the hull.  The interior is more cramped, and the Desert Warrior is heavier, but the Desert Warrior has a marked firepower increase and protection factor over the base Warrior.

     Recently, the Kuwaitis have indicated that they would be interested in most of the same upgrades that the Warrior is receiving, but retaining their basic turret and using a different autocannon.

 

The Warrior – The Other APC-Type Variants

     The British Army uses three command versions of the Warrior.  These versions are externally identical to the FV-510 and have the same weapons fit.  However, they are internally quite different; the communications fit is very different and the interior arrangements are also quite different.  For game purposes, all three versions are the same.  These versions carry one short-range, two medium-range, and two long-range radios, map boards, extra stowage for supplies for plotting friendly and enemy movements, a ruggedized laptop computer, extra lighting, and a set of hand-held vision devices including a thermal imager, an image intensifier, four sets of binoculars, and a laser rangefinder.  They typically also have a separate GPS unit installed aboard instead of being built-in.  (These are included in the price below, but not otherwise listed.) The electrical system is also a bit more robust, and extra electrical connections are provided for equipment in use.  An artillery battery command vehicle is of similar concept, but different in its outfitting; for game purposes, it is otherwise the same. The command versions also have double doors at the rear instead of the standard single large door.

 

Warrior 2000

     The Warrior 2000 was developed for the Swiss competition for a new IFV.  (It lost in this competition to the CV-9030.) The Warrior 2000 featured increased armor, a digital fire control system with two-plane stabilization, a more powerful 650-horsepower engine, and a Delco turret (an alternate had a Land Systems Hagglunds E30 turret) with a 30mm Mk 44 Bushmaster II autocannon and a pair of TOW ATGM launchers, one on each side, like the Desert Warrior.  (It is still fitted with a 7.5mm coax.) It could be fitted with ERA on the front, sides, and turret front, sides, and rear.  It could also be fitted with cage armor.  In the end, only a few prototypes were produced.  The hull is some 23 centimeters longer than the Warrior, allowing for two extra infantrymen to be carried.

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: The lack of firing points proved to not be critical, as did the lack of amphibious capability, but the lack of heavy weapons was to lead to many tragic losses during the Twilight War, and by 1997, production of the baseline Warrior stopped in favor of the Desert Warrior version, until the production facilities were destroyed in mid-1998 by a nuclear strike.  None of the upgraded Warriors made it to the party.

 

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

Warrior

$147,795

D, A

1 ton

28 tons

3+7

15

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior w/Cage Armor

$148,657

D, A

1 ton

28.4 tons

3+7

16

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior w/Appliqué

$150,580

D, A

1 ton

29 tons

3+7

15

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior w/Appliqué 750 hp Engine

$151,181

D, A

1.36 tons

29.3 tons

3+7

15

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior (BGTI)

$177,080

D, A

1 ton

29 tons

3+7

16

Thermal Imaging (G), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior (WSCP, Basic Armor)

$529,340

D, A

900 kg

29.1 tons

3+7

19

Thermal Imaging (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior (WSCP, LV 1 Appliqué)

$530,216

D, A

900 kg

29.6 tons

3+7

19

Thermal Imaging (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior (WSCP, LV 2 Appliqué)

$585,772

D, A

900 kg

31.1 tons

3+7

20

Thermal Imaging (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior (WFLIP, Basic Armor)

$550,909

D, A

900 kg

29.2 tons

3+7

19

Thermal Imaging (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior (WFLIP, LV 1 Appliqué)

$551,785

D, A

900 kg

29.7 tons

3+7

20

Thermal Imaging (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior (WFLIP, LV 2 Appliqué)

$607,341

D, A

900 kg

31.2 tons

3+7

20

Thermal Imaging (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Desert Warrior

$175,401

D, A

600 kg

28.5 tons

3+7

16

Thermal Imaging (G), Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

Desert Warrior (Late)

$1,201,443

D, A

707 kg

28.84 tons

3+7

19

Thermal Imaging (G), Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

Warrior CPV

$410,555

D, A

1 ton

28 tons

3+4

18

Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

Warrior 2000

$465,445

D, A

1.18 tons

28.45 tons

3+9

18

Thermal Imaging (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C), Image Intensification (G, C)

Shielded

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

Warrior/CPV

132/92

33/20

770

282

Trtd

T4

TF12  TS8  TR5  HF11  HS7  HR5*

Warrior w/Cage Armor

130/91

32/19

770

286

Trtd

T4

TF12  TS10Sp  TR7Sp  HF13Sp  HS9Sp  HR7Sp*

Warrior w/Appliqué/BGTI/WSCP Basic Armor/CPV

128/89

32/19

770

293

Trtd

T4

TF12  TS8  TR5  HF17Sp  HS10Sp  HR5*

Warrior w/Appliqué/BGTI/WSCP Basic Armor/CPV

166/116

46/32

770

262

Trtd

T4

TF12  TS8  TR5  HF17Sp  HS10Sp  HR5*

Warrior (WSCP/WFLIP, LV 1 Appliqué)

125/87

31/19

770

299

Trtd

T4

TF12  TS9Sp  TR6Sp  HF19Sp  HS11Sp  HR6**

Warrior (WSCP/WFLIP, LV 2 Appliqué)

119/83

29/18

770

314

Trtd

T4

TF13Sp  TS10Sp  TR7Sp  HF24Sp  HS16Sp  HR6***

Desert Warrior

129/31

32/20

770

288

Trtd

T4

TF7  TS7Sp  TR5  HF16Sp  HF10Sp  HR5

Desert Warrior (Late)

197/137

55/38

770

310

Trtd

T4

TF7  TS7Sp  TR5  HF16Sp  HF10Sp  HR5

Warrior 2000

160/111

40/24

770

314

Trtd

T4

TF12  TS8  TR5  HF17Sp  HS10Sp  HR5****

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

Warrior/CPV

+1

Basic

30mm L-21A1 Rarden autocannon, L-94A1

250x30mm, 2000x7.62mm

Warrior (BGTI)

+2

Basic

30mm L-21A1 Rarden autocannon, L-94A1

250x30mm, 2000x7.62mm

Warrior (WSCP)

+3

Good

30mm L-21A1 Rarden autocannon, L-94A1

250x30mm, 2000x7.62mm

Warrior (WFLIP)

+4

Good

40mm CT-40 autocannon, L-94A1, L-7A2 (C), Milan ATGM launcher

350x40mm, 3000x7.62mm, 4xMilan ATGM

Desert Warrior

+2

Fair

25mm M-242 Chaingun, MAG, 2xTOW II launchers

630x25mm, 1920x7.62mm, 7xTOW II ATGM

Desert Warrior (Late)

+3

Good

30mm Mk 44 Bushmaster II, MAG, MAG (C), 2xTOW II Launchers

525x30mm, 1920x7.62mm, 7xTOW II ATGM

Warrior 2000

+4

Good

30mm Mk 44 Bushmaster II, M-83, M-83 (C), 2xTOW II Launchers

525x30mm, 1920x7.5mm, 7xTOW II ATGM

*Hull floor armor for this version is 5.

**Hull floor armor for this version is 6; turret roof armor is 5.

***Hull floor armor for this version is 7; turret roof armor is 5.  The spaced armor of the hull sides and hull front is of a special composition and stops 4D6 instead of 2D6 from HE-type rounds; from AP and KE-type rounds, it stops 2D6.

****Hull floor armor for this version is 7Sp; turret roof armor is 5.  The spaced armor of the hull sides and hull front is of a special composition and stops 4D6 instead of 2D6 from HE-type rounds; from AP and KE-type rounds, it stops 2D6.

 

 

Alvis/BAE FV-4333 Stormer

     Notes:  The Stormer series is an outgrowth of the CVR(T) series of vehicles, and of the FV-103 Spartan in particular. Development began in the mid-1970s, with the first prototype appearing in 1978, and series production beginning in 1981.  The Stormer was designed to supplement the Warrior, and to be a family of vehicles (over 20 variants were planned, and a great deal have been implemented).  The Stormer is longer and wider than the Spartan, and a little higher as well. Stormers and their variants are used by Indonesia, Malaysia, and Oman in addition to Britain; in addition, the US Army and Marines both tested them (the Marines under its LAV requirement; the Army as an Airborne/Light Infantry vehicle, particularly in its guise as the Stormer 90; three of differing sorts were actually sold to the US DoD).  The Stormer is no longer being sold by BAE, but modifications are still carried out upon request, and the most commonly-needed spare parts are still being made.

 

The Basic Stormer

     The basic version, the FV-4333, is a “basic box” sort of APC equipped with a No. 16 turret that allows the gunner’s machinegun to be aimed and fired from under armor.  (In its basic form, not many were actually seen in British service, as they preferred a number of specialist and upgraded forms.)  Layout is basically the same as the Spartan, but the commander’s positions has a cupola and the squad leader for the passengers has his own hatch along with four wide-angle vision blocks.  The driver’s position is at the top left of the glacis, with the commander’s position behind him on the deck and the squad leader’s hatch to the right.  The passenger’s compartment is to the rear; despite the larger dimensions of the Stormer, the interior of the Stormer is actually a bit smaller than that of the Spartan. Part of this is due to an increase in armor, part due to larger fuel tanks, and part due to equipment storage and things like the vehicle’s NBC filtration pack being mounted inside the walls of the vehicle instead of on the exterior.

     The Spartan is powered by a 250-horsepower Perkins T6.3544 diesel, positioned to the right of the driver, coupled to an Allison T300 automatic transmission that is known for its ease and agility in shifting gears.  The engine and transmission as well as some other automotive components are designed as a single integrated powerpack.  The driver has one wide-angle vision block, which may be replaced by a night vision block; his hatch opens forward and downward on the glacis, clearing his forward vision block.  The driver steers with a yoke and has a conventional brake and gas pedal.  Six aluminum, rubber-tired roadwheels are found on each side, with torsion-bar suspension and with hydropneumatic shock absorbers at the first, second, and sixth set of roadwheels, granting a fairly smooth ride.  Originally, the Stormer had no return rollers, but later two per side were added.  The Stormer is amphibious with preparation (similar to the Spartan, with a floatation screen requiring erection, a trim vane extended, and a bilge pump turned on; time required is 15 minutes). A propeller kit can be retrofitted to the Stormer for amphibious operations, doubling the Stormer’s swimming speed.  The tension of the tracks can be set by the driver from his compartment using a hand pump, which connects to a hydraulic ram-type tension adjustor (doing this while the vehicle is in motion is definitely discouraged, as it can easily lead to a thrown track).

     Behind the driver, the commander has a cupola surrounded by vision blocks and with a machinegun that can be aimed and fired from under armor. (It’s the same No. 16 cupola that is fitted to most versions of the Spartan.)  The vision blocks have no magnification, but the machinegun mount has a dual-channel x1/x10 periscope with an aiming reticule.  The commander’s hatch opens to the left; it is large enough and positioned such that it would block the rear deck hatches if the hatch opened to the rear.  An optional night vision device can be included in the cupola; it is common enough that I have included it in the stats below. At the top of the glacis on each side of the vehicle are found four-barreled smoke grenade launchers. The squad leader has a simple deck hatch (with the aforementioned vision blocks); this does open to the rear, but only to a point where it is locked in a straight-up position, so as to not block the rear deck hatches.  The standard passenger compartment has folding bench seats for four troops down either side of the compartment; they normally enter and exit the vehicle through a large rear hatch which has a single vision block in it. Small equipment lockers are found under the bench seats, and large stowage boxes are found on the sides and at the rear on either side of the door. In keeping with British Army doctrine, there are no firing ports.  Over the passenger compartment are a pair of large rectangular hatches; when both are open, all eight troops in the passenger compartment can stand upright in the hatchway.  The crew and passengers have a collective NBC system and a heater. Armor is of steel, and an appliqué armor kit is available.

     Further options (found mostly on export versions or never bought by any country) include an air conditioner, NBC overpressure system, firing ports (from 2-4 in each side, and up to two in the rear), an automatic fire detection and suppression system, a fully automatic transmission, an inertial navigation system and/or GPS, and various communication system fits.

     A minor variant of the Stormer uses a No. 27 cupola for the commander.  This cupola is similar to the No. 16, but is fitted with an M-2HB heavy machinegun.  On such vehicles, the squad leader’s position usually has a pintle weapon mount.  Though not official designations, I have referred to these two versions as the No. 16 and No. 27 versions below.

 

Variants and mods and changes, oh my! (And these are just the APC-type variants.)

     The amount of modifications, variants, prototypes, and other odd ideas for the Stormer approaches those of those M-113; some 25 versions were either produced or proposed.  (Mostly proposed, but never achieved any sales; I think that Alvis and BAE tried to come with everything but a lawn-mowing version.) Lots of countries use or used the Stormer, or at least tested them, and it seems that everyone wanted something different.  BAE was only too happy to oblige, and come up with some of their own ideas as well to attempt to attract more of the international market.

     When the US Marines were looking for a LAV, one of the vehicles they looked at was the Stormer.  The Army was also looking at a light airborne combat vehicle, similar in idea to the BMD-2 (in addition to the Scorpion-90 for airborne fire support).  This USMC/Army LAV mounted (naturally) the same turret as the LAV-25; the BAE designation was the FVT-800, and that is how I refer to it in the stats below.  The smoke grenade launchers are still in clusters of four, but are moved to the sides of the turret. The rear face has a smaller door, but the door has a firing port in it; in addition, the rear face has a drop ramp instead of merely the door. The overhead hatch is eliminated (the turret leaves no room for it), as is the standard cupola and the squad leader’s hatch.  Each side of the FVT-800 has three more firing ports; the vehicle was tested both with seats down the center and seats on sides of the passenger compartment. As the engine was the same as that of the standard Stormer, some cited a lack of power; more likely was a “not invented here” attitude that heavily pervaded the US military at the time. A similar idea was then marketed by BAE for international consumption; this version’s houses a 30mm L-21A1 Rarden autocannon.  The turret has a coaxial machinegun, but is otherwise similar in concept to the FVT-800; it was referred to as the Stormer MICV.  The ramp is deleted, with the former large rear door replaced. It appears to have not ever found any customers.

     The FVT-900 Stormer IFV was also marketed, but had no known sales other than 12 sold to Malaysia.  This version has a Helio FVT-900 turret (hence the designation) originally mounting a 20mm autocannon and coaxial machinegun.  The autocannon was later upgraded to a 25mm model. Each side of the turret has a cluster of five smoke grenade launchers.  The overhead hatches on the rear deck are less than half the size of those on the standard Stormer, with four troops able to stand in them while bumping elbows and shoulders.  The rear face is the same as that of the original Stormer, with one large door and no ramp, though the rear door has a firing port and each side has three firing ports.  The new turret has better night vision than most versions of the Stormer, along with high-magnification day sights.  Gun stabilization is better than most Stormers, and a laser rangefinder also helps the situation in later versions of the FVT-900.

     The other 13 of the Stormer APCs bought by Malaysia are Stormer TH-1s, which have the commander’s cupola replaced by a somewhat larger Rheinmetall TH-1 turret.  This turret has a pair of MG-3 machineguns.

     The FV-900 was an interesting variant, another that never sold.  It was similar to the FVT-800 and FVT-900, but the turret used was a turret like that of the M-2 Bradley, though with less armor protection.  An interesting idea, in my mind, and one that may have proven a better concept than the Warrior if it had more power and a mite better armor.  Oh well…

     In addition, many of the specialized variants of the Spartan had their counterparts in the Spartan. Stormer counterparts to the Samaritan, Sultan, the Sultan EW vehicle were built. A fully enclosed logistics carrier, and the Stormer counterpart to the Streaker – the HMLC (High-Mobility Logistics Carrier) were all built, with only the Stormer command vehicle and the HMLC achieving any measure of success. (The HMLC, in fact, spawned several specialized variants itself.) Most conform to the Spartan variants above, though with updated electronics and equipment, but we’ll go into the logistics carrier and HMLC a little more. The logistics carrier is essentially the same as the basic Stormer with a No. 16 turret, but the flooring has rollers, lockdown points, and tie-down points to allow it to carry large bulk cargoes.  The seats remain, but are normally folded up.  Any number of smaller lockers and bins can be added to the interior. 

     The HMLC can be mistaken for the Streaker at first glance, but is a bit larger and has more cargo capacity.  The commander’s position has a pintle mount, but no cupola.  Like the Streaker, the rear cargo area has drop sides and a tailgate, and these are low, with no overhead cover. The sides are essentially sheet steel, with the front of the cargo area being the rear of the cab.  Both the HMLC and the logistics carrier are equipped with a small crane with a capacity of 1.5 tons to assist with offloading and loading cargo. Indonesia, in particular, fields a decent number of HMLCs (in addition to No. 16 and No. 27 APCs), but Britain’s HMLCs are generally further modified into more specialist vehicles.

 

     Twilight 2000 Notes: Perhaps the most common of the variant vehicles used by the British in the Twilight 2000 timeline was the FVT-900, but the other variants were also encountered with regularity by Pact forces. The British basically fielded as many Stormer variants as possible.  The US Marines did not pick up the FVT-800, but the US 82nd Airborne Division did field it in small numbers, as did the Belgian Army.

Vehicle

Price

Fuel Type

Load

Veh Wt

Crew

Mnt

Night Vision

Radiological

FV-4333 No. 16

$50,794

D, A

1.05 tons

12.7 tons

2+9

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

FV-4333 No. 16 w/Appliqué

$51,331

D, A

1.02 tons

13.3 tons

2+9

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

FV-4333 No. 27

$58,613

D, A

1.05 tons

12.7 tons

2+9

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

FV-4333 No. 27 w/Appliqué

$59,150

D, A

1.02 tons

13.3 tons

2+9

6

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

FVT-800

$81,588

D, A

1 ton

13.7 tons

3+6

7

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

Stormer MICV

$81,060

D, A

1 ton

13.7 tons

3+6

7

Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

FVT-900

$100,965

D, A

1 ton

13.4 tons

3+8

7

Image Intensification (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

FVT-900 (Modified)

$204,216

D, A

1 ton

13.4 tons

3+8

7

Image Intensification (G, C), Passive IR (D, G, C)

Shielded

Stormer TH-1

$56,972

D, A

1.02 tons

12.9 tons

2+8

6

Passive IR (G, C)

Shielded

FV-900

$251,716

D, A

900 kg

14 tons

3+6

8

Passive IR (D), Thermal Imaging (G, C)

Shielded

Stormer AMV

$58,413

D, A

1.05 tons

13.5 tons

**

7

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

Stormer CPV

$234,619

D, A

700 kg

13.5 tons

2+5

10

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

Stormer EW

$431,269

D, A

600 kg

13.5 tons

3+3

13

Passive IR (D, C)

Shielded

HMLC

$35,095

D, A

4 tons

9.2 tons

2

4

Passive IR (D)

Shielded (Cab Only)

 

Vehicle

Tr Mov

Com Mov

Fuel Cap

Fuel Cons

Config

Susp

Armor

FV-4333 No. 16/27

133/93

33/20/2

405

130

Stnd

T3

HF8  HS4  HR4

FV-4333 No. 16/27 w/Appliqué

129/90

32/19/2

405

134

Stnd

T3

HF10  HS6  HR4*

FVT-800/MICV

125/88

31/18/2

405

138

Trtd

T3

TF6  TS4  TR4  HF8  HS4  HR4

FVT-900

127/89

32/18/2

405

135

Trtd

T3

TF5  TS3  TR3  HF8  HS4  HR4

Stormer TH-1

132/92

33/20/2

405

130

CiH

T3

TF3  TS2  TR2  HF8  HS4  HR4

FV-900

 

 

405

 

Trtd

T3

TF4  TS3  TR3  HF8  HS4  HR4

Stormer AMV/CPV/EW

125/87

31/19/2

405

138

Stnd

T3

HF8  HS4  HR4

HMLC

184/128

46/28/3

320

94

Stnd

T3

HF8  HS4  HR4***

 

Vehicle

Fire Control

Stabilization

Armament

Ammunition

FV-4333 No. 16/CPV/EW/Logistics

+1

None

L-7A2 (C)

3000x7.62mm

FV-4333 No. 27

+1

None

M-2HB (C), L-7A2

600x.50, 2000x7.62mm

FVT-800

+1

Basic

25mm M-242 ChainGun, M-240D

630x25mm, 1620x25mm

Stormer MICV

+1

Basic

30mm L-21A1 Rarden, L-94A1

165x30mm, 1620x7.62mm

FVT-900

+1

Fair

20mm Oerlikon KAA, MG-3

600x20mm, 1600x7.62mm

FVT-900 (Modified)

+2

Fair

25mm Oerlikon KBA, MG-3

500x25mm, 1600x7.62mm

Stormer TH-1

+1

Basic

2xMG-3

3000x7.62mm

FV-900

+1

Fair

25mm M-242 ChainGun, M-240D, 2xTOW II ATGM Launchers

600x25mm, 2000x7.62mm, 7xTOW II ATGM

HMLC

None

None

L-7A2 (C)

1500x7.62mm

*Belly armor for this variant is 3.

**Three crew, plus four stretchers, 2 stretchers and 3 seated patients, or 6 seated patients.

***The AV of the load-carrying area is 2 on all sides except the front (which is the rear wall of the cab).